Trans-related research in English


Research publicized in peer-review journals


2011; Meyer-Bahlburg HFL; “Do Some Men Who Desire Sex Reassignment Have A Mental Disorder? Response to Lawrence (2011)“; Archives of Sexual Behavior, August 2011, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 655-657

2010: Lawrence AA; “Sexual Orientation versus Age of Onset as Bases for Typologies (Subtypes) for Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents and Adults“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 39, Number 2, 514-545, DOI: 10.1007/s10508-009-9594-3

2010; Moser C; “Blanchard’s Autogynephilia Theory: A Critique“; Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 57, Issue 6 July 2010 , pages 790 – 809

2009; Nuttbrock et al; “A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria“; Archives of Sexual Behavior DOI: 10.1007/s10508-009-9579-2

2008; Smith YL et al; “Transsexual subtypes: clinical and theoretical significance“; Psychiatry Res. 2005 Dec 15;137(3):151-60. Epub 2005 Nov 17

1989; Blanchard R; “The Concept of Autogynephilia and the Typology of Male Gender Dysphoria“; J Nerv Ment Dis. 1989 Oct;177(10):616-23

1985; Blanchard R; “Typology of male-to-female transsexualism“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 14, Number 3, 247-261, DOI: 10.1007/BF01542107


2007; Gomes-Gil E; “Sociodemographic, Clinical, and Psychiatric Characteristics of Transsexuals from Spain“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 38, Number 3, 378-392, DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9307-8

1996; Weitze C, Osburg S; “Transsexualism in Germany: Empirical data on epidemiology and application of the German Transsexuals’ Act during its first ten years“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 25, Number 4, 409-425, DOI: 10.1007/BF02437583


2013; Cohen-Kettenis, PT, et al; “Gender Variance in Childhood and Sexual Orientation in Adulthood: A Prospective Study“; The Journal of Sexual Medicine Volume 10, Issue 11, pages 2723–2733, November 2013

2010; Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF; “Sexual Hormones and the Brain: An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation“; Endocr Dev. 2010;17:22-35

2010; T’sjoen et al; “Male Gender Identity in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome“; Arch Sex Behav. 2010 Apr 1

2009; Diamond M; “Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones“; Hormones and Behavior 55 (2009) 621–632

2009; Veale JF & Clarke DE; “Biological and Psychosocial Correlates of Adult Gender‐Variant Identities: a Review“; Personality and Individual Differences (2009) 48(4), 357-366

Fysiological Differences

2009; Kraemer B et al; “Finger Length Ratio (2D:4D) in Adults with Gender Identity Disorder“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 38, Number 3, 359-363, DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9262-4

2008; Zucker KJ et al; “2D:4D finger-length ratios in children and adults with gender identity disorder“; Hormones and Behavior Volume 54, Issue 3, August 2008, Pages 450-454

2006; Schneider HC et al; “Typical female 2nd–4th finger length (2D:4D) ratios in male-to-female transsexuals—possible implications for prenatal androgen exposure“; Psychoneuroendocrinology Volume 31, Issue 2, February 2006, Pages 265-269

2001; Zucker KJ et al; “Handedness in Boys with Gender Identity Disorder“; Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Volume 42, Issue 6, pages 767–776, September 2001

2000; Slabbekoorn D; “The dermatoglyphic characteristics of transsexuals: is there evidence for an organizing effect of sex hormones“; Psychoneuroendocrinology Volume 25, Issue 4, May 2000, Pages 365-375


2013; Fernandez, R. et al; “The (CA)n Polymorphism of ERβ Gene is Associated with FtM Transsexualism“; The Journal of Sexual Medicine

2009; Hare L et al; “Androgen receptor repeat length polymorphism associated with male-to-female transsexualism“; Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Jan 1;65(1):93-6. Epub 2008 Oct 28

2009; Ujike H; “Association study of gender identity disorder and sex hormone-related genes“; Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry Volume 33, Issue 7, 1 October 2009, Pages 1241-1244

2008; Bentz et al; “A polymorphism of the CYP17 gene related to sex steroid metabolism is associated with female-to-male but not male-to-female transsexualism“; Fertil Steril. 2008 Jul;90(1):56-9. Epub 2007 Sep 4

2007; Benz et al; “A Common Polymorphism of the SRD5A2 Gene and Transsexualism“; Reproductive Sciences October 2007 vol. 14 no. 7 705-709

2005; Landen, M. et al; “Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism“; Psychoneuroendocrinology (2005) 30, 657–664

2003; Hengstschläger et al; “Sex chromosome aberrations and transsexualism” Fertility and Sterility, 79, 639–640

Hormonal Replacement therapy

2013; Gooren, L., Morgantaler A.; “Prostate cancer incidence in orchidectomised male-to-female transsexual persons treated with oestrogens“; Andrologia, DOI: 10.1111/and.12208

2013; Wierckx, K., et al; “Sexual Desire in Trans Persons: Associations with Sex Reassignment Treatment“; The Journal of Sexual Medicine, DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12365

2013; De Cuypere, G, et al; “Effects of Different Steps in Gender Reassignment Therapy on Psychopathology: A Prospective Study of Persons with a Gender Identity Disorder“; The Journal of Sexual Medicine, DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12363

2013; Gooren, L. J., et al; “Breast Cancer Development in Transsexual Subjects Receiving Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment“; Journal of Sexual Medicine. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12319

2013; Wierckx, K., et al; “Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancer during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large cohort of trans persons: a case control study

2013; Auer, M. et al; “Changes in sexual orientation in gender identity disorder: evaluation of their association to sex reassignment surgery and cross-sex hormone treatment“; Endocrine Abstracts (2013) 32 P333

2009; Elamin MB; “Effect of sex steroid use on cardiovascular risk in transsexual individuals: a systematic review and meta-analyses“; Clinical Endocrinology Volume 72, Issue 1, pages 1–10, January 2010

2006; Pol et al; “Changing your sex changes your brain: influences of testosterone and estrogen on adult human brain structure“; European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol 155, suppl_1, S107-S114

2000; Giltay EJ, Gooren LJG; “Effects of Sex Steroid Deprivation/Administration on Hair Growth and Skin Sebum Production in Transsexual Males and Females“; The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 85, No. 8 2913-2921

1997; Van Kesteren PJM., et al; “Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross-sex hormones“; Clinical Endocrinology, Volume 47, Issue 3, pages 337–343, September 1997

1989; Asscheman H., et al; “Mortality and morbidity in transsexual patients with cross-gender hormone treatment“; Metabolism, Volume 38, Issue 9, September 1989, Pages 869–873


2014; Armeni, K.A., et al; “When genotype prevails: sexual female-to-male transformation in Classical Antiquity, recorded by Gaius Plinius Secundus and Phlegon“; Hormones 2014, 13(1):153-156

2013; Schweizer K., et al; “Gender experience and satisfaction with gender allocation in adults with diverse intersex conditions (divergences of sex development, DSD)“; Psychology & Sexuality, DOI: 10.1080/19419899.2013.831216

2010; P.A. Lee & C.P. Hou; “Review of Outcome Information in 46,XX Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Assigned/Reared Male: What Does It Say about Gender Assignment?“; International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 982025

2009; Holterhus et al; “Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes“; Genomics. 2009 Jul 1;10:292

2005; Reis E.;” Impossible Hermaphrodites: Intersex in America, 1620–1960“; Journal of American History Sept 2005 pp 411-441

2004; Reiner & Gearhart; “Discordant Sexual Identity in Some Genetic Males with Cloacal Exstrophy Assigned to Female Sex at Birth“; N Engl J Med. 2004 January 22; 350(4): 333–341

1998; Slijper et al; “Long-Term Psychological Evaluation of Intersex Children“; Archives of Sexual Behavior(1998) Volume 27, Number 2, 125-144


2014; Zubiaurre-Elorza, L., et al “Effects of Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment on Cortical Thickness in Transsexual Individuals“; The Journal of Sexual Medicine; DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12491

2013; Simon V., et al; “Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study“; PLoS ONE 8(12): e83947. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083947

2010; Rametti et al; “White matter microstructure in female to male transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A diffusion tensor imaging study“; Journal of Psychiatric Research, Volume 45, Issue 2, February 2011, Pages 199-204

2010; Rametti et al; “The microstructure of white matter in male to female transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A DTI study“; Journal of Psychiatric Research, doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071

2010; Swaab DF et al; “Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation“; Progress in Brain Research, Volume 186, 2010, Pages 41-62 (Chapter 4)

2010; Schöning S et al; “Neuroimaging differences in spatial cognition between men and male-to-female transsexuals before and during hormone therapy.“; J Sex Med. 2010 May;7(5):1858-67. Epub 2009 Sep 14.

2010; Tanaka et al; “Regional cerebral blood flow changes in female to male gender identity disorder“; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010 Apr 1;64(2):157-61

2009; Gizewski et al; “Specific Cerebral Activation due to Visual Erotic Stimuli in Male-to-Female Transsexuals Compared with Male and Female Controls: An fMRI Study“; J Sex Med 2009;6:440–448.

2009; Ludes et al; “Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism“; Neuroimage. 2009 Jul 15;46(4):904-7

2009; Swaab DF & Garcia-Falgueras A; “Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation“; Functional Neurology, Jan-Mar 2009

2008; Berglund et al; “Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids“; Cerebral Cortex 2008 18(8):1900-1908

2008; Garcia-Falgueras et al; “A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity“; Brain. 2008 Dec;131(Pt 12):3132-46

2008; Zulago et al; “The role of androgen receptors in the masculinization of brain and behavior: what we’ve learned from the testicular feminization mutation“; Horm Behav 53:613-626

2006; Hulshoff Pol HE; “Changing your sex changes your brain: influences of testosterone and estrogen on adult human brain structure“; European Journal of Endocrinology (2006) 155 S107–S114

2004; Swaab DF; “Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation“; Gynecol Endocrinol (2004) 19:301–312

2002; Swaab DF et al; “Sexual Differentiation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Humans May Extend into Adulthood“; The Journal of Neuroscience, February 1, 2002, 22(3):1027–1033

2001; Kruijver PM et al; “Sex Differences in Androgen Receptors of the Human Mamillary Bodies Are Related to Endocrine Status Rather Than to Sexual Orientation or Transsexuality“; The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 86, No. 2 818-827

2000; Kruijver PM et al; “Male–to–female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus“; J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2000) 85:2034–2041

1995; Zhou; “A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality“; Nature (1995) 378:68–70


2014: Clark, T.C., et al; “The Health and Well-Being of Transgender High School Students: Results From the New Zealand Adolescent Health Survey (Youth’12)“; Journal of Adolescent Health, doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.11.008

2013; Daphna, J. et al; “Queering gender: studying gender identity in ‘normative’ individuals“; Psychology & Sexuality, DOI:10.1080/19419899.2013.830640

2013; Kuyper, L., Wijsen, C.; “Gender Identities and Gender Dysphoria in the Netherlands“; Archives of Sexual Behavior, July 2013

2008; Veale J; “Prevalence of transsexualism among New Zealand passport holders“; Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 2008, Vol. 42, No. 10 , Pages 887-889 (doi:10.1080/00048670802345490)

2007; De Cuypere G et al; “Prevalence and demography of transsexualism in Belgium“; Eur Psychiatry. 2007 Apr;22(3):137-41. Epub 2006 Dec 26

2007; Olyslager F, Conway L; “On the Calculation of the Prevalence of Transsexualism“; Paper presented at the WPATH 20th International Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, September 5-8, 2007

2003; Olsson SE, Möller AR; “On the Incidence and Sex Ratio of Transsexualism in Sweden, 1972–2002“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 32, Number 4, 381-386, DOI: 10.1023/A:1024051201160

2000; Garrels L; “Sex ration of transsexuals in Germany: the development of three decades”; Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000 Dec;102(6):445-8

1999; Wilson P; “The prevalence of gender dysphoria in Scotland: a primary care study“; Br J Gen Pract. 1999 December; 49(449): 991–992.

1996; van Kesteren PJ; “An Epidemological and Demographic Study of Transsexuals in the Netherlands“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 25, Number 6, 589-600, DOI: 10.1007/BF02437841

1996; Landén M; “Incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism in Sweden“; Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996: 93: 261–263

1993; Bakker A et al; “The Prevalence of Transsexualism in the Netherlands“; Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1993 Apr;87(4):237-8

1988; Eklund PL et al; “Prevalence of transsexualism in The Netherlands“; The British Journal of Psychiatry 152: 638-640 (1988)

1988; Tsoi WF; “The prevalence of transsexualism in Singapore“; Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Volume 78, Issue 4, pages 501–504, October 1988

1981; Ross MW et al; “Cross-cultural approaches to transsexualism A COMPARISON BETWEEN SWEDEN AND AUSTRALIA“; Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Volume 63, Issue 1, pages 75–82, January 1981

1974; Hoenig J, Kenna C; “The prevalence of transsexualism in England and Wales“; Brit. J. Psychiat. (1974) 124, 181-90

1971; Wålinder J et al; “Incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism in Sweden“; The British Journal of Psychiatry (1971) 119: 195-196. doi: 10.1192/bjp.119.549.195

Psychosocial differences

2010; Govier et al; “Dichotic Listening, Handedness, Brain Organization and Transsexuality“; International Journal of Transgenderism, 12:144–154, 2010

Psychosocial health

2013; Colizzi M., et al; “Transsexual patients’ psychiatric comorbidity and positive effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health: results from a longitudinal study“; Psychoneuroendocrinology

2013; Witten, T. M.; “It’s Not All Darkness: Robustness, Resilience, and Successful Transgender Aging“; LGBT Health, doi:10.1089/lgbt.2013.0017.

2011; Dhejne C et al; “Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden“; PLoS ONE 6(2): e16885. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016885

2010; Ainsworth TA, Spiegel JH; “Quality of life of individuals with and without facial feminization surgery or gender reassignment surgery“; Quality of Life Research Volume 19, Number 7, 1019-1024, DOI: 10.1007/s11136-010-9668-7

2009; Lai MC et al; “Correlates of Gender Dysphoria in Taiwanese University Students“; Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 39, Number 6, 1415-1428, DOI: 10.1007/s10508-009-9570-y

2009; Pitts MK et al; “Transgender People in Australia and New Zealand: Health, Well-being and Access to Health Services“; Feminism Psychology November 2009 vol. 19 no. 4 475-495 doi: 10.1177/0959353509342771

2007; McGeoch PD, Ramachandran VS; “Occurrence of phantom genitalia after gender reassignment surgery“; Medical Hypotheses Volume 69, Issue 5, Pages 1001-1003 (2007)

2006; Clements-Nolle K; “Attempted Suicide Among Transgender Persons – The Influence of Gender-Based Discrimination and Victimization“; Journal of Homosexuality, 51: 3, 53 — 69

2006; De Cuypere G et al; “Long-term follow-up: psychosocial outcome of Belgian transsexuals after sex reassignment surgery“; Sexologies Volume 15, Issue 2, April-June 2006, Pages 126-133

2006; Tae-Suk K et al; “Psychological burdens are associated with young male transsexuals in Korea“; Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Volume 60, Issue 4, pages 417–421, August 2006

2005; ehring D, Knudsn G; “Prevalence of Childhood Trauma in a Clinical Population of Transsexual People“; International Journal of Transgenderism, 8: 1, 23 — 30

Reproductive science

2012; Eggar, S., Sinclair A.; “Mammalian sex determination—insights from humans and mice“; Chromosome Research January 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 215-238

2011; Krotz et al; “In vitro maturation of oocytes via the pre-fabricated self-assembled artificial human ovary“; Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics Volume 27, Number 12, 743-750, DOI: 10.1007/s10815-010-9468-6

2011; Matson, CK. et al; “DMRT1 prevents female reprogramming in the postnatal mammalian testis“; Nature 476, 101–104 (04 August 2011) doi:10.1038/nature10239

2009; Uhlenhaut et al; “Somatic Sex Reprogramming of Adult Ovaries to Testes by FOXL2 Ablation“; Cell, Volume 139, Issue 6, 1130-1142, 11 December 2009


2011; Zucker, K. et al; “Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People, Version 7“; International Journal of Transgenderism, 13:165–232, 2011

2010; Murad HM et al; “Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes“; Clinical Endocrinology Volume 72, Issue 2, pages 214–231, February 2010

2009; J.F.Veale & D.E.Clarke; “Biological and Psychosocial Correlates of Adult Gender‐Variant Identities: a Review“; Personality and Individual Differences (2009) 48(4), 357-366

2006; Besser et al; “Atypical Gender Development: a review“; International Journal of Transgenderism 9(1): 29-44. 2006

2000; Blackless M; “How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis“; Am J Hum Biol. 2000 Mar;12(2):151-166


2005; Lloyd, J. et al; “Female genital appearance: ‘normality’ unfolds“; BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 112: 643–646


2013; Yavorsky, J.E., Sayer, L.; “‘Doing Fear’: The Influence of Hetero-femininity on (Trans)women’s Fears of Victimization”; The Sociological Quarterly, Volume 54, Issue 4, pages 511–533, Fall 2013

2013; Auer, M. K., et al “Twenty years of endocrinologic treatment in transsexualism: analyzing the role of chromosomal analysis and hormonal profiling in the diagnostic work-up“; Fertility and Sterility

2012; Reese, C. K. “Borders that matter: Trans identity management“;

Thesis’s written by students


2010; Ophelia B; “”They Need Labels”: Contemporary Institutional and Popular Frameworks for Gender Variance“; Anthropology thesis

Surveys and other non-scientific information


2011; The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and the National Center for Transgender Equality; “Injustice at every turn


2011; The Audit Information & Analysis Unit for London, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Essex, Beds & Herts; “Survey of Patient Satisfaction with Transgender Services

Arch Sex Behav. 2010 Apr 1
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